Wednesday, January 7, 2009

What Is Typhoid And What Are It’s Main Causes

What Is Typhoid And What Are It’s Main Causes

What is Typhoid?

Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area.

Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype typhi, which is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Each year the disease affects at least 16 million persons world-wide, most of whom reside in the developing countries of Southeast Asia and Africa. In Italy the disease is uncommon with a greater number of cases in Southern regions than in Northern ones.
It is a common disease in the sub continent and affects all age groups. The poor hygiene conditions, open sanitation habits, flies, sale of exposed food, and illiteracy is responsible for this disease. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective and are usually reserved for people who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is endemic.

What are main causes of Typhoid?

Typhoid fever is caused by a virulent bacterium called Salmonella typhi. Although they're related, this isn't the same as the bacteria responsible for salmonellosis, another serious intestinal infection.


Salmonella (S.) is the genus name for a large number (over 2,500) of types of bacteria. Each type is distinctly identifiable by its specific protein coating. The types are otherwise closely related. Salmonella bacteria are rod-shaped, flagellated, Gram stain-negative and are known to cause disease in humans, animals, and birds (especially poultry) worldwide.

S. typhi are spread by contaminated food, drink, or water. Following ingestion, the bacteria spread from the intestine via the bloodstream to the intestinal lymph nodes, liver, and spleen via the blood where they multiply.
Salmonella may directly infect the gallbladder through the hepatic duct or spread to other areas of the body through the bloodstream.
Early symptoms are generalized and include fever, malaise and abdominal pain. As the disease progresses, the fever becomes higher (greater than 103 degrees Fahrenheit), and diarrhea becomes prominent. Weakness, profound fatigue, delirium, and an acutely ill appearance develop.
A rash, characteristic only of typhoid and called "rose spots," appears in some cases of typhoid. Rose spots are small (1/4 inch) red spots that appear most often on the abdomen and chest. Typically, children have milder disease and fewer complications than adults.

The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water.

Some other causes of typhoid:

Typhoid fever can be caused in three main ways:

if contaminated sewage gets into the supply of drinking water,

if an infected person handles food without washing their hands properly, and
if bacteria is transferred to food by flies feeding on infected stools (faeces).

Infection is the most common cause :

Viral (e.g., influenza, HIV, hepatitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, mononucleosis, adenovirus)

Bacterial (e.g., pneumonia, endocarditis, tuberculosis, meningitis, pyelonephritis, appendicitis, cholecystitis, cellulitis)

Lyme disease




Intra-abdominal abscess
Malignancy :

Lymphoma (Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's)

Lymphoproliferative disorders

Renal cell carcinoma


Hepatocellular carcinoma
Rheumatologic disorders :

Temporal arteritis/giant cell arteritis

Adult-onset Still's disease

Systemic lupus erythematosus


Rheumatoid arthritis

Peter Hutch
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Salmonellosis - Causes , Symptoms And Treatment

Salmonellosis - Causes , Symptoms And Treatment


Salmonellosis is a bacterial infection which is cause by Salmonella. It affects the gastrointestinal system almost the stomach and intestines in humans. In few cases, Salmonella can spread to the blood, the bones, or even to the fluid around the brain. Annually, there are 600 to 800 cases reported in Washington.

Salmonella are the cause of two diseases called salmonellosis: enteric fever (typhoid), resulting from bacterial invasion of the bloodstream, and acute gastroenteritis, resulting from a foodborne infection/intoxication.


You can get salmonellosis by eating food contaminated with salmonella. Food may become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected food handler. A frequent cause is a food handler who does not wash his or her hands with soap after using the bathroom. The cause of Salmonellosis are gram-negative, motile bacteria called Salmonella which are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and are usually found in the intestinal tract. These bacteria infect many species of animal including amphibians, birds, mammals (including humans), insects and reptiles. While the occurrence of different types of Salmonella varies from country to country, S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis are the two most commonly found in the United States.


The symptoms generally appear one to three days after exposure. Serious bloodstream infections can occur, particularly in the very young or elderly. If you only have diarrhea, you usually recover completely, although it may be several months before your bowel habits are entirely normal. A small number of people who are infected with salmonellosis develop Reiter's syndrome, a disease that can last for months or years and can lead to chronic arthritis. Few common symptoms are :-

Body pain
Abdominal pain or tenderness or cramping
Nausea or vomiting

Salmonellosis isn't seen very often in cats & it is believed they have a natural immunity to the bacteria.


To prevent dehydration, take frequent sips of a rehydration drink such as Lytren, Rehydralyte, or Pedialyte. Try to drink a cup of water or rehydration drink for each large, loose stool you have. Sports drinks, soda pop, and fruit juice contain too much sugar and not enough of the important electrolytes that are lost during diarrhea and should only be taken alternately with a rehydration drink.

People with diarrhea who are unable to take oral (by mouth) fluids due to nausea may need medical attention and intravenous fluids. This is especially true for small children. Fever and aches can be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
By: ashu
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Sunday, January 4, 2009

Quit Smoking By Champix To Say Good Bye To Cigarette

Quit Smoking By Champix To Say Good Bye To Cigarette

Champix (Varenicline) – Quit smoking with the latest smoking cessation drug

If you are above the age of 18 and want an aid to quit smoking, get Champix varenicline. It is manufactured by Pfizer and is only available on prescription. If you have made up your mind to quit smoking, ask a doctor if Champix varenicline is right for you. If you quit smoking with Champix (varenicline), it will help you by curbing nicotine cravings and reducing withdrawal symptoms. Champix also helps by reducing the pleasure associated with smoking.

About Champix – Quit smoking drug

The active ingredient in Champix is varenicline and it works by interfering with nicotine receptors in the brain. This part of the brain is related to smoking addiction. Champix affects nicotine receptor in two ways – first it imitates nicotine and attaches itself to the receptor to give the same pleasure like that of nicotine and second it blocks nicotine from attaching to receptors as varenicline binds to the receptors more tightly.

Champix varenicline quadruples the chances of successful smoking cessation as compared to quitting smoking without an aid. As Champix does not contain nicotine like some other quit smoking aids, it is non-addictive in nature. This helps you quit smoking without having to resort to other forms of nicotine.

Ingredients and strength of Champix

The active ingredient in Champix is varenicline. It is non-addictive in nature and mimics the effect of nicotine in brain. This relieves withdrawal symptoms and nicotine cravings and makes it easy for you to quit smoking.

Dosage and strength

Champix varenicline comes in a weekly dose pack and the starter pack lasts for two weeks. The starter pack includes 0.5mg tablets and 1mg tablets, which are coloured white and light blue respectively. This helps in easy recognition.

The recommended standard dosage for Champix varenicline is as follows:

Days 1-3 -- 0.5mg once daily
Days 4-7 -- 0.5mg twice daily (morning & evening)
Days 8-End of primary treatment -- 1.0mg twice daily (morning & evening)

If you continue to take Champix varenicline for further abstinence, you can take two Champix tablets of 1mg from the 9th day until the end of the treatment. Normally, this is the standard dosage to quit smoking, recommended by doctors.

Always take Champix varenicline after eating and with a full glass of water and do not double dose if you miss a dose, just continue as normal.

If your doctor prescribes some other dosage schedule than the standard recommended dosage, follow his instructions. The schedule of your current medications or your tolerance level may have resulted in dosing difference.

Side effects of Champix varenicline

Champix side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent for different people depending on individual body type. The most common side effect of Champix varenicline is nausea. Most people who take Champix to quit smoking do not necessarily experience side effects. Nevertheless, it is important that you know about them, so that you will know during the quit smoking treatment, if you experience any side effect of Champix varenicline. You may or may not experience one or any of the side effects mentioned below:

- abdominal pain
- appetite changes
- exhaustion
- constipation
- dizziness
- dry mouth
- flatulence (passing gas)
- headache
- heartburn
- vomiting
- rash
- sleeping problem (difficulty sleeping or abnormal dreams)
- gingivitis

If you experience any of the above side effects of Champix varenicline and they become specifically bothersome, inform your doctor immediately.

Is Champix a safe quit smoking drug?

There are certain people and situations for which Champix varenicline is not safe. Other than that you can proceed to take Champix varenicline after consulting a doctor.

- If you are below 18 years of age or above 65 years of age
- If you are pregnant or are a lactating mother
- If you are allergic to varenicline or any other ingredient of Champix
- If you have kidney problems
- If you are taking medications for asthma, diabetes, vitamin or herbal tablets or blood thinners

If you have any such problems, do not take Champix varenicline to quit smoking.

Remember, it may not always be easy to quit smoking, but with patience and persistence you may emerge as a winner.

By: Katiee

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